Dense high-speed scintillator material of low afterglow

Abstract

The invention relates to an inorganic scintillator material of formula Lu (2-y) Y (y-z-x) Ce x M z Si (1-v) M′ v O 5 , in which: M represents a divalent alkaline earth metal and M′ represents a trivalent metal, (z+v) being greater than or equal to 0.0001 and less than or equal to 0.2; z being greater than or equal to 0 and less than or equal to 0.2; v being greater than or equal to 0 and less than or equal to 0.2; x being greater than or equal to 0.0001 and less than 0.1; and y ranging from (x+z) to 1. In particular, this material may equip scintillation detectors for applications in industry, for the medical field (scanners) and/or for detection in oil drilling. The presence of Ca in the crystal reduces the afterglow, while stopping power for high-energy radiation remains high.

Claims

1. An inorganic scintillator material of formula Lu (2-y) Y (y-z-x) Ce x Ca z SiO 5 , wherein: Z is greater than or equal to 0.0001 and less than 0.05; x is greater than or equal to 0.0001 and less than 0.1; and y ranges from (x+z) to 1. 2. The material as claimed in claim 1 , wherein z is less than 0.01. 3. The material as claimed in claim 1 , wherein z is between 0.0002 and 0.001. 4. The material as claimed in claim 1 , wherein x is greater than 0.0001 and less than 0.001. 5. An inorganic LYSO-type scintillator material comprising Lu, Si, O, Y and M or M′ in which M represents a divalent alkaline earth metal ion and M′ represents a trivalent metal wherein M or M′ reduces an afterglow. 6. The material as claimed in claim 5 , wherein said inorganic scintillator material is a single-crystal material. 7. The material as claimed in claim 5 , wherein the material has formula Lu (2-y) Y (y-z-x) Ce x M z Si (1-v) M′ v O 5 , in which: M represents a divalent alkaline earth metal ion and M′ represents a trivalent metal, (z+v) is greater than or equal to 0.0001 and less than or equal to 0.2; z is greater than or equal to 0 and less than or equal to 0.2; v is greater than or equal to 0 and less than or equal to 0.2; x is greater than or equal to 0.0001 and less than 0.1; and y ranges from (x+z) to 1. 8. The material as claimed in claim 7 , wherein (z+v) is greater than or equal to 0.0002. 9. The material as claimed in claim 7 , wherein (z+v) is less than or equal to 0.05. 10. The material as claimed in claim 7 , wherein (z+v) is less than or equal to 0.01. 11. The material as claimed in claim 7 , wherein (z+v) is less than 0.001. 12. The material as claimed in claim 7 , wherein x is greater than 0.0001 and less than 0.001. 13. An inorganic LYSO-type scintillator material comprising Lu, Si, O, Y and Ca, wherein Ca reduces an afterglow. 14. An inorganic LYSO-type scintillator material comprising Lu, Si, O, Y and Al, wherein Al reduces an afterglow. 15. An inorganic LYSO-type scintillator material comprising a trivalent rare earth ion, Si, O, Y and M or M′ in which M represents a divalent alkaline earth metal ion and M′ represents a trivalent metal wherein M or M′ reduces an afterglow. 16. A method for growing the single-crystal scintillator material of claim 6 , comprising growing the single crystal according to the Czochralski method. 17. A method for reducing the afterglow of an inorganic LYSO-type scintillator material comprising Lu, Si, O wherein a divalent alkaline earth metal ion M, or a trivalent metal M′ selected from the group consisting of Al, Ga, and In is added to said material. 18. A scintillation detector comprising the inorganic scintillator material of claim 5 . 19. A CT (Computed Tomography) scanner comprising the detector of claim 18 . 20. A scintillation detector comprising the inorganic scintillator material of claim 15 . 21. A CT (Computed Tomography) scanner comprising the detector of claim 20 . 22. A scintillation detector comprising the inorganic scintillator material of claim 1 . 23. A CT (Computed Tomography) scanner comprising scintillator of claim 22 .
CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS This application is a continuation application of prior U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/573,323 filed May 2, 2007 now U.S. Pat. No. 7,651,632, the disclosure of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety. U.S. Ser. No. 11/573,323 is a National Stage of PCT/FR05/50658 filed on Aug. 8, 2005 which claims the benefit of priority under 35 U.S.C. §119 from French Patent Application No. 045181.5, filed Aug. 9, 2004, the disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entireties. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The invention relates to scintillator materials, to a manufacturing process for obtaining them and to the use of said materials, especially in gamma-ray and/or X-ray detectors. Scintillator materials are widely used in detectors for gamma rays, X-rays, cosmic rays and particles having an energy of the order of 1 keV and also above this value. A scintillator material is a material that is transparent in the scintillation wavelength range, which responds to incident radiation by emitting a light pulse. It is possible to manufacture from such materials, which are generally single crystals, detectors in which the light emitted by the crystal that the detector contains is coupled to a light detection means and produces an electrical signal proportional to the number of light pulses received and to their intensity. Such detectors are used in particular in industry to measure thickness and grammage or coating weight, and in the fields of nuclear medicine, physics, chemistry and oil research. One family of known scintillator crystals that is used is that of cerium-doped lutetium silicates. Cerium-doped Lu 2 SiO 5 is disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,958,080, and the U.S. Pat. No. 6,624,420 discloses Ce 2x (Lu 1-y Y y ) 2(1-x) SiO 5 . Finally, U.S. Pat. No. 6,437,336 relates to compositions of the Lu 2(1-x) M 2x Si 2 O 7 type, where M is at least partly cerium. These various scintillator compositions all have in common a high stopping power for high-energy radiation and give rise to intense light emission with very rapid light pulses. A desirable additional property is to reduce the amount of light emitted after the incident radiation stops (i.e. delayed luminescence or afterglow). Physically, this phenomenon, well known to those skilled in the art, is explained by the presence of electron traps in the crystallographic structure of the material. The phenomenon of scintillation relies on the photoelectric effect, which creates an electron-hole pair in the scintillator material. Upon recombination on an active site (a Ce 3+ site in the aforementioned scintillators), the electron emits photons via a process that generally takes place in much less than one microsecond. The aforementioned scintillators, which are particularly rapid, result in a pulse duration that decreases with a first-order exponential constant of around 40 ns. However, the trapped electrons do not generate light, but their detrapping by thermal excitation (including at room temperature) gives rise to photon emission—the afterglow—, which still remains measurable after times of greater than one second. This phenomenon may be unacceptable in applications in which it is desired to isolate each pulse, using very short windowing. This is particularly the case with CT (computed tomography) applications (scanners) that are well known in the medical or industrial sectors. When the CT system is coupled to a PET (Positron Emission Tomography) scanner, which is becoming the standard in industry, the poorer resolution of the CT affects the performance of the entire system and therefore the capability of the clinician to interpret the result of the complete PET/CT system. Afterglow is known to be completely unacceptable for these applications. Compositions of the lutetium silicates type, disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,958,080 (of the LSO:Ce type, using the notation of those skilled in the art) and U.S. Pat. No. 6,624,420 (of the LYSO:Ce type) are known to generate a significant afterglow. In contrast, the compositions disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,437,336 (of the LPS:Ce type) have the advantage of a much weaker afterglow. These results are given for example by L. Pidol, A. Kahn-Harari, B. Viana, B. Ferrand, P. Dorenbos, J. de Haas, C. W. E. van Eijk and E. Virey in “Scintillation properties of Lu 2 Si 2 O 7 :Ce 3+ , a fast and dense scintillator crystal”, Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 2003, 15, 2091-2102. The curve shown in FIG. 1 is extracted from this article and represents the amount of light detected in the form of the number of events (or counts) per mg of scintillator material as a function of time, under X-ray excitation for a few hours. The LPS:Ce composition gives a significantly better result in terms of afterglow. The behavior of LYSO is very similar to that of LSO from this standpoint. The reduction in this afterglow forms the subject of the present application. The afterglow property may be demonstrated more fundamentally by thermoluminescence (see S. W. S. McKeever “Thermoluminescence of solids”, Cambridge University Press (1985)). This characterization consists in thermally exciting a specimen after irradiation and measuring the light emission. A light peak close to room temperature at 300 K corresponds to an afterglow of greater or lesser magnitude depending on its intensity (detrapping). A peak at a higher temperature corresponds to the existence of traps that are deeper but less susceptible to thermal excitation at room temperature. This is illustrated in FIG. 2 , extracted from the aforementioned article by L. Pidol et al., which shows, in another way, the advantage of a composition of the LPS type in terms of afterglow. However, compositions of the LPS type have the drawback of a lower stopping power than those of the LSO or LYSO type. This situation stems simply from the average atomic number of the compound and from the density of the associated phase. BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION Thermoluminescence measurements may be carried out using an automated TL-DA-15 instrument, manufactured by RISO (Denmark), shown schematically in FIG. 3 . The heater, the thermocouple and a “lift”, allowing the specimen to be positioned, are in alignment with the photomultiplier (PM) and with optical filters. Inside the analysis chamber, which is under a stream of nitrogen, a pivoting table (pivoting specimen holder) actuated by a motor is able to position the specimen either in front of the radioactive source (placed in a lead container) for the irradiation step, or between the heater and the photomultiplier for the thermoluminescence measurements. Before each measurement, the crystals, which are about 1 mm in thickness, are heated for a few minutes to 672 K. Next, they are irradiated and then the thermoluminescence curves are recorded under a stream of nitrogen, with a constant heating rate between 313 and 672 K. Measurements at higher temperatures are not possible because of the black body radiation (“black body radiation” is the light spontaneously emitted by a substance that is heated to incandescence). Each curve is normalized with respect to the mass of product. In our case, the emission that interests us is that from the cerium ion, between about 350 and 450 nm. We have chosen matched filters (HA3 and 7-59) at the entry of the photomultiplier. For quantitative measurements, the irradiation takes place in situ by a 90 Sr/ 90 Y β-source delivering a dose of 3.6 gray/h in air. The parameters that can be varied during the TL (thermoluminescence) measurements are the dose (irradiation time, here 20 s) and the heating rate (here, 0.5 K/s). The Applicant has discovered that the addition of a divalent alkaline earth metal M and/or of a trivalent metal M′ to an LYSO-type composition reduces the afterglow. In particular, M may be Ca, Mg or Sr (in divalent cation form). In particular, M′ may be Al, Ga or In (in trivalent cation form). The element M substitutes for Y or Lu and the element M′ substitutes for Si. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a diagram showing the amount of light detected in the form of the number of events (or counts) per mg of scintillator material as a function of time, under X-ray excitation for a few hours. FIG. 2 is a diagram showing the amount of light measured as a function of temperature. FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of an automated TL-DA-15 instrument, manufactured by RISO (Denmark). FIG. 4 is a diagram comparing the afterglow values of compositions 1 and 2 with a conventional LSO. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION Surprisingly, the products according to the invention, thanks to the introduction of M, especially Ca, reduce the afterglow without affecting the density within the proportions considered. The scintillator material according to the invention is of formula: Lu (2-y) Y (y-z-x) Ce x M z Si (1-v) M′ v O 5   (Formula 1) in which: M represents a divalent alkaline earth metal, such as Ca, Mg or Sr, and M′ represents a trivalent metal, such Al, Ga or In, (z+v) being greater than or equal to 0.0001 and less than or equal to 0.2; z being greater than or equal to 0 and less than or equal to 0.2; v being greater than or equal to 0 and less than or equal to 0.2; x being greater than or equal to 0.0001 and less than 0.1; and y ranging from (x+z) to 1. Preferably, (z+v) is greater than or equal to 0.0002. Preferably, (z+v) is less than or equal to 0.05 and more preferably less than or equal to 0.01, and even less than 0.001. Preferably, x is greater than 0.0001 and less than 0.001. In particular, v may be zero (absence of M′), in which case z is at least 0.0001. In particular, the scintillator material according to the invention may be such that v is zero. The scintillator material according to the invention may also be such that M is Ca, which corresponds to a particularly suitable composition. The combination of v being zero with M being Ca as particularly suitable. The composition according to the invention then has the following formula: Lu (2-y) Y (y-z-x) Ce x Ca z SiO 5   (Formula II) The scintillator material according to the invention may in particular also be such that z is zero. The scintillator material according to the invention may in particular also be such that M′ is Al. The combination of z being zero with M′ being Al is particularly suitable. The composition according to the invention then has the following formula: Lu (2-y) Y (y-x) Ce x Al v Si (1-v) O 5   (Formula III) The molar content of the element 0 is five times that of (Si+M′), it being understood that this value may vary by about ±2%. The scintillator material according to the invention can be obtained in the form of a single crystal or a single crystal by Czochralski growth. The invention also relates to the use of the scintillator material according to the invention as a component of a radiation detector, in particular a gamma-ray and/or X-ray detector, especially in CT (Computed Tomography) scanners. The invention also relates to the use of the scintillator material according to the invention as a component of a scintillation detector, especially for applications in industry, for the medical field and/or for detection in oil drilling. In particular, this involves any scintillator system with continuous acquisition (which include CT tomography). Also involved is any scintillator system of the positron emission tomography type, especially with time-of-flight measurement), optionally combined with emission tomography. Without the Applicant being tied down to any particular theoretical argument, it is assumed that the introduction of a divalent alkaline earth metal ion M substituting for a trivalent rare-earth ion, or of a trivalent metal ion M′ substituting for a tetravalent silicon atom, creates a positive charge deficit that limits the trapping of electrons responsible for the afterglow. EXAMPLES Three LYSO:Ce single crystals 1 inch in diameter were produced using the Czochralski method under conditions identical to those described in the aforementioned patents. To do this, raw materials corresponding to the following compositions were used: Control (with no Ca): Lu 1.8 Y 0.1978 Ce 0.0022 SiO 4.9961 Composition 1: Lu 1.8 Y 0.1778 Ca 0.02 Ce 0.0022 SiO 4.9961 Composition 2: Lu 1.8 Y 0.1878 Ca 0.01 Ce 0.0022 SiO 4.9961 The charges were prepared from the corresponding oxides (Ca, Ce, Lu, Y oxides) so as to obtain the desired formulae. The actual Ce and Ca concentrations in the final crystal were lower than those introduced via the raw materials through segregation during crystal growth. The single crystals finally obtained, of formula Lu (2-y) Y (y-z-x) Ce x Ca z SiO 5 , had the following compositions at the top of the specimen: Control (no Ca) Composition 1 Composition 2 x 0.00026 0.00031 0.00036 y 0.095 0.095 0.095 z 0 0.00041 0.00023 Composition 1 gave a significantly lower afterglow than the control composition (of the conventional LYSO type) and an estimated light level of 20 000 photons/MeV under excitation by a 137 Cs gamma-ray source, i.e. slightly less than the LPS composition (26 000 photons/MeV), the LYSO composition (34 000 photons/MeV) and the LSO composition (about 28 000 photons/MeV). Such a light level is far from unacceptable for most applications. Bismuth germanate (Bi 4 Ge 3 O 12 ), very widely used, emits only 9 000 photons/MeV. Overall, composition 1 has as much stopping power as an LYSO-type composition without significantly losing out in terms of light level, while still significantly reducing the afterglow. Composition 2 is even more advantageous, with a still lower afterglow and a light yield of 27 000 photons/MeV. FIG. 4 compares the afterglow values of compositions 1 and 2 with a conventional LSO (the control).

Description

Topics

Download Full PDF Version (Non-Commercial Use)

Patent Citations (7)

    Publication numberPublication dateAssigneeTitle
    US-2006288926-A1December 28, 2006Hitachi Chemical Company, Ltd.Scintillator single crystal and production method of same
    US-2008089824-A1April 17, 2008Hitachi Chemical Company, Ltd.Single crystal for scintillator and method for manufacturing same
    US-6278832-B1August 21, 2001Tasr LimitedScintillating substance and scintillating wave-guide element
    US-6323489-B1November 27, 2001Regents Of The University Of CaliforniaSingle crystal scinitillator
    US-6437336-B1August 20, 2002CrismatecScintillator crystals and their applications and manufacturing process
    US-6624420-B1September 23, 2003University Of Central Florida, Crystal Photonics, Inc.Lutetium yttrium orthosilicate single crystal scintillator detector
    US-7651632-B2January 26, 2010Saint-Gobain Christaux Et DetecteursLow-delayed luminescence dense and rapid scintillator material

NO-Patent Citations (2)

    Title
    Y. Zavartsev et al, "Czochralski growth and characterisation of large Ce3 + :Lu2SiO5 Single crystals co-doped with Mg2 + or Ca2 + Tb3 + for scintillators", Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 275, No. 1-2, pp. e2167-e2171, 2005.
    Zavartsev et al, "Czochralski growth and characterisation of large Ce+3:Lu2sio5 single crystals co-doped with Mg+2 or Ca+2 or Tb+3 for sintillators", Journ. Cry. Growth, 275, e2167-71, Jan. 1, 2005.

Cited By (7)

    Publication numberPublication dateAssigneeTitle
    US-2007277726-A1December 06, 2007Tatsuya Usui, Naoaki Shimura, Yasushi Kurata, Kazuhisa KurashigeMethod for heat treating single crystal
    US-2011297882-A1December 08, 2011Saint-Gobain Cristaux Et DetecteursDense high-speed scintillator material of low afterglow
    US-8574458-B2November 05, 2013Saint-Gobain Cristaux Et DetecteursDense high-speed scintillator material of low afterglow
    US-9175216-B2November 03, 2015Saint-Gobain Ceramics & Plastics, Inc.Ceramic scintillator body and scintillation device
    US-9442199-B2September 13, 2016Zecotek Imaging Systems Pte. Ltd.Depth-of-interaction scintillation detectors
    US-9534170-B2January 03, 2017Saint-Gobain Cristaux Et DetecteursDense high-speed scintillator material of low afterglow
    US-9868900-B2January 16, 2018Samuel Blahuta, Eric E. Mattmann, Damien Pauwels, Bruno VianaScintillation compound including a rare earth element and a process of forming the same